Microbiology is the study of all living organisms that are too small to be visible with the naked eye. This includes bacteria, archaea, viruses, fungi, prions, protozoa and algae, collectively known as ‘microbes‘. These microbes play key roles in nutrient cycling, biodegradation/biodeterioration, climate change, food spoilage, the cause and control of disease, and biotechnology. Pure Microbiology provides a broad platform of a large excess of research and plenty of new insights into different areas of Microbiology.
Microbiology Research & Advancements
Rapid identification of microorganisms in the clinical microbiology can be of great value for selection of optimal patient management strategies for infections caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi, mycobacteria, and parasites. Rapid identification of microorganisms in clinical samples enables expedient de-escalation from broad-spectrum agents to targeted antimicrobial therapy. The switch to tailored therapy minimizes risks of antibiotics, namely, disruption of normal flora, toxic side effects, and selective pressure. There is a critical need for new technologies in clinical microbiology, particularly for bloodstream infections, in which associated mortality is among the highest of all infections.
Clinical and Medical Microbiology
Clinical Microbiology conference provides a comprehensive theoretical and practical review of advanced techniques like robotics surgery, sensitive skin, hybridism technology, iris scanning, medical imaging and thermography. Clinical Microbiology is the subject in which any microbes can cause infection in humans. As we know, new microorganisms are being discovered all the time and they are developing more and more resistance to antibiotics, hence microbiologist aims at the application of different microbes for the betterment of human health. Antimicrobial therapy implements the clinical use of antimicrobial agents in treating communicable disease.
Medical microbiology is a branch of medicine dealing with the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of infectious as well as non-infectious diseases. Medical microbiologists deal with clinical consultations on the investigation, principles of diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of infectious diseases.
Infectious diseases kill more people worldwide than any other single cause. The diseases are caused by the pathogenic organisms by viruses, bacteria and fungus. They can be spread by any means where there is a germ. They are caused by pathogenic microorganisms such as bacteria, virus, parasites and fungi. Germs can be spread by direct or indirect contact. Vaccination, maintenance of proper hygiene and medicines help in the prevention of infection.
Bacteria are single cellular microorganisms that lack a nuclear membrane and are dividing by binary fission. The study of bacteria called as bacteriology. Bacteriological study helps in the field of agricultural, or soil, bacteriology; clinical diagnostic bacteriology; industrial bacteriology; marine bacteriology; public-health bacteriology; sanitary, or hygienic, bacteriology; and systematic bacteriology. A bacterial infection is a rapid growth of a harmful strain of bacteria on or inside the body. Harmful bacteria can cause a few illnesses like pneumonia, meningitis, and food poisoning. Bacterial infections are one of the main causes of foodborne illness. Common symptoms include nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, fever, chills, fatigue and abdominal pain. Most of the sexually transmitted diseases (STD) are caused by the harmful bacteria.
Virology is the study of viruses, about the nucleic acid and protein that are responsible for their replication in plants, animals and humans. It reveals about the study of their distribution, biochemistry, about their histology, ecology and clinical aspects of virus. It is the scientific discipline concerned with the viruses, physiology, molecular biology and viral diseases along with their causal agents.
Fungal Infectious Diseases are often caused by fungi that are common in the environment. Most fungi are not dangerous, but some types can be harmful to health. Mild fungal skin diseases can look like a rash and are very common. Fungal diseases in the lungs are often similar to other illnesses such as the flu or tuberculosis. Some fungal infections like fungal meningitis and bloodstream infections are less common than skin and lung infections but can be deadly. Fungi are everywhere. There are approximately 1.5 million different species of fungi on Earth, but only about 300 of those are known to make people sick. Fungal diseases are often caused by fungi that are common in the environment. Fungi live outdoors in soil and on plants and trees as well as on many indoor surfaces and on human skin.
Tropical diseases are diseases that are prevalent in or unique to tropical and subtropical regions. The diseases are less prevalent in temperate climates, due in part to the occurrence of a cold season, which controls the insect population by forcing hibernation. Tropical diseases encompass all diseases that occur solely in the tropics. In practice, the term is often taken to refer to infectious diseases that thrive in hot, humid conditions, such as malaria, leishmaniasis, schistosomiasis, onchocerciasis, lymphatic filariasis, Chagas disease, African trypanosomiasis, and dengue.
STD & HIV Infection
There are a number of infections and cancers that can develop in people who are living with HIV. There are infections that can be life threatening. These are also known as opportunistic infections. The more common life-threatening infections include a lung infection called Pneumocystis Pneumonia (PCP), an eye infection caused by Cytomegalovirus (CMV), a brain infection called toxoplasmosis, and a generalized infection called Mycobacterium Avium Complex (MAC). Cancers that are more common include Hodgkin’s lymphoma, lung cancer, skin cancer, anal cancer, cervical and vaginal cancer in women, and testicular and prostate cancer in men. These cancers can often be successfully treated if they occur in people with HIV who maintain healthy immune systems with HIV treatment. Sexually Transmitted Diseases/ Sexually Transmitted Infections are the infectious diseases which are transmitted through sexual contact with an infected individual and transmitted during vaginal or other types of sexual intercourse including oral and anal sex.
Infection, Immunity and Inflammation
These infection spreads was by Aedes mosquito. These infections cause birth absconds in babies by tainted pregnant ladies, side effects are gentle fever, skin rash, conjunctivitis, muscle and joint agony, disquietude or migraine. These keep going for 2-7 days this contamination was affirmed by research facility tests on blood or other body liquids, for example, pee, spit or semen. Ebola infection sickness (EVD), is normally called as Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF) or Ebola, signs and manifestations ordinarily begin between two days and three weeks subsequent to getting the infection with a fever, sore throat, strong torment and migraine at that point, spewing, the runs and rash typically take after, alongside diminished capacity of the liver and kidneys. An investigation of key characteristics of viruses, bacteria and other micro-organisms causing infections in humans. The mechanisms by which micro-organisms cause disease and evade the immune system are considered.
Pharmaceutical Microbiology deals with the study of microorganisms that is concerned within the manufacture of prescribed drugs e.g. minimizing the quantity of microorganisms in an exceedingly method setting, excluding microorganisms and microorganism by-products like exotoxin and endotoxin from water and alternative beginning materials, and making certain the finished pharmaceutical product is sterile. Alternative aspects of pharmaceutical biological science embrace the analysis and development of anti-infective agents, the employment of microorganisms to sight agent and malignant neoplastic disease activity in prospective medication, and therefore the use of microorganisms within the manufacture of pharmaceutical product like endocrine and human growth hormone.
Veterinary Infectious Diseases
Infectious and parasitic disease control is important in veterinary clinics. The main aim is to prevent the spread of infections and infestations. Veterinary infectious diseases are caused by bacteria, fungi, viruses, and parasites. These infections and diseases may be spread or transmitted from human to human, human to animal, and animal to human. The medical community has a particular responsibility in infection control in hospitals — this community includes veterinarians. These sciences are used to control human health through monitoring and control of zoonotic disease, infectious disease transmitted from non-human animals to humans, food safety, and indirectly through human applications from basic medical research food supply is through livestock health monitoring and treatment, and mental health by keeping pet’s healthy and long living. Veterinary scientists often collaborate with epidemiologists.
Antimicrobials/ Antibiotics/ Antibacterial
Antimicrobials/ antibiotics/ antibacterial are the drugs used in the treatment and prevention of bacterial infections. They may either kill or inhibit the growth of bacteria. Few antibiotics possess antiprotozoal activity. Antibiotics are not effective against viruses such as the common cold or influenza and their inappropriate use allows the emergence of resistant organisms.
Vaccines and Vaccination
Infectious Diseases Prevention, Control and Cure
Disease control is the discipline concerned about avoiding nosocomial or healthcare insurance related contamination, a pragmatic (instead of scholarly) sub-train of the study of disease transmission. Infectious diseases avoidance and control is useful to keep the transmission of infectious diseases. Aseptic technique is typically connected to keep the diseases caused by various means. Disinfection is another procedure of killing microorganisms by the applying heat. Sanitization is the way toward killing destructive microorganisms. Infection care and management (IPC) may be a scientific approach and sensible answer designed to control the effect caused by infection to patients and medical examiners. One among the foremost necessary routes for transmission of infection is that the hands. Hands that infected with any contaminated item, surface or object may be contaminated with germs from that supply. The contagious transmit might deals with raw food, animals, and spattered nappies, dirty surfaces like bathrooms or hands contaminated/ infected with nasal secretion or spit when reflex, coughing or drooling.
Malaria is a mosquito borne Infectious Disease affecting humans and other animals caused by Parasitic Protozoans (a group of single celled microorganisms) belonging to the plasmodium type. Malaria symptoms typically include Fever, Fatigue, Vomiting and Headaches which can be observed in 10-15 after being bitten by mosquito. In severe cases, it can cause yellow skin, seizures, coma or and even death.
Diagnosis – Infectious Diseases
Medical diagnosis is the process of determining which disease or condition explains a person’s symptoms and signs. Laboratory tests may identify organisms directly (e.g., Visually, using a microscope growing the organism in culture) or indirectly (e.g., Identifying antibodies to the organism). General types of tests include Microscopy, Culture, Immunologic Tests (Agglutination tests such as Latex Agglutination, Enzyme Immunoassays, Western Blot, Precipitation Tests and Complement Fixation Tests) and Nucleic acid/ Non-nucleic acid-based Identification Methods. Sub types of diagnoses include Clinical, Laboratory, Radiology, Principal and Admitting Diagnosis. Advanced methods have been implemented to diagnose the Infection in any part of the body. Examples include Biomarkers, Elisa Test, Chest X-Ray, Skin Biopsy, Tympanometry and Tympanocentesis.
Epidemiology is a field of medicine uses to studies the occurrence, causes and its effects on population. It has a key role in protecting public health and can provide valuable information for developing new medicines. It is used to plan and evaluate strategies to prevent illness as well as guide to the patients in whom disease has already developed. Its study includes causation of diseases, transmission of diseases, forensic epidemiology, Occupational epidemiology, screening and the treatment effects such as in clinical trials. The investigation of the study of disease transmission of irresistible malady includes the event, recurrence and variables of contaminations in individuals. Diseases are one of the real reasons for sickness, loss of economy and deaths. Infectious Diseases execute and assess contributions at the individual and network level to reduce contamination and, among those with diseases, to restrain advancement of illness or ailment related passing and sick wellbeing.
Pediatric / Childhood Infectious Diseases
Pediatric infectious diseases also known as childhood infectious diseases are the infectious diseases which are caused in children of various age groups. Pediatric infectious diseases experts deal with the infections occurring in children and the treatment method fluctuates from children to adults. Common pediatric infections include Pneumonia- diagnosed in nearly 2% of infants < 1 year and in 4% of children aged 1 to 5 years. It is estimated that 90% of pediatric pneumonias are caused by viral agents. Other infections also include Otitis Media which is caused in children who live with the adults who smoke
Health Care - Infectious Diseases
Health improvement maintained by Prevention, diagnosis and treatment of diseases, illness, injury, and other physical and mental injuries in human. Healthcare is conveyed by health experts in related health fields. Doctors and doctor allies are a part of health care. The infections experience in health care settings has become more challenging. Most of the duty workers get exposed commonly to a variety of infectious diseases during the performance of their duties. The primary route of infections transmission is airborne, contact (direct and indirect) which involves the entry of infectious agents from infected individual to a susceptible individual through physical contact and Indirect contact transmission occurs by susceptible individual physical contact with contaminated items.